The format of this page is

  • A summary of the key points relevant up to 2020
  • An online and printable version of the 2012/3 publication “one in a million”
  • A summary of the main points raised by more recent papers and reports
  • Access to a list of the key papers and reports published since 2012/3
  • Access to an archive of other reports etc.

Key Points (Updated 2020)

  • Fluorides are very common in the environment: they exist naturally in lakes, rivers, groundwater and the oceans.
  • Reviews of the literature and environmental impact assessments have found no evidence of any adverse environmental effects resulting from water fluoridation.
  • Water fluoridation could be described as environmentally friendly since it ensures maximum utilisation of natural resources, and reduces waste.

One in a Million

Our One in a Million online database includes a comprehensive section on water fluoridation and general health.

Environmental Issues

Environmental aspects of fluoridation (2012)