The format of this page is

  • A summary of the key points relevant up to 2020
  • An online and printable version of the 2012/3 publication “one in a million”
  • A summary of the main points raised by more recent papers and reports
  • Access to a list of the key papers and reports published since 2012/3
  • Access to an archive of other reports etc.

Key Points (Updated 2020)

  • Fluorides are very common in the environment: they exist naturally in lakes, rivers, groundwater and the oceans.
  • Reviews of the literature and environmental impact assessments have found no evidence of any adverse environmental effects resulting from water fluoridation.
  • Water fluoridation could be described as environmentally friendly since it ensures maximum utilisation of natural resources, and reduces waste.
  • Trinity College Dublin researchers collaborating with University College London have demonstrated for the first time the low environmental footprint of water fluoridation compared to other preventive measures for tooth decay.

One in a Million

Our One in a Million online database includes a comprehensive section on water fluoridation and general health.

Environmental Issues

Environmental aspects of fluoridation (2012)