Systematic Reviews Archive

Cochrane Oral Health Group review of fluorosis studies

Cochrane Oral Health Group review of fluorosis studies

In a review published in 2015, the Cochrane Oral Health Group authirs say that, in its mildest form, fluorosis is visible only to trained examiners under controlled examination conditions. In addition, they acknowledge that moderate dental fluorosis, where a larger area of the total tooth surface is affected, could be considered to be an ‘unwanted’ effect rather than an adverse one.

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Australian NHMRC review of fluorosis studies

Australian NHMRC review of fluorosis studies

This 2016 review concluded that the York and Cochrane review findings on fluorosis were of “limited relevance” to fluoridation in Australia, and reaffirmed that dental fluorosis which may be of aesthetic concern is “uncommon”.

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York review of fluorosis studies

York review of fluorosis studies

In 2000, researchers at the University of York in 2000 published their findings from a review of fluorosis studies from around the world. Combining data from all these sources, they estimated that there was a 10% to 12% prevalence of dental fluorosis of aesthetic concern in fluoridated areas, compared with a 6% prevalence in non-fluoridated areas. Most of the ‘fluoridated’ areas had naturally, rather than artificially, fluoridated water and were located in countries with hot climates and therefore higher average water intakes.

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Studies Of Interest Archive

Average fluoride intake of 1 to 7 year olds within recommended limits for minimising fluorosis risk

Average fluoride intake of 1 to 7 year olds within recommended limits for minimising fluorosis risk

Figures cited in a paper by Maguire and Zohoori (British Dental Journal, June 2013) show that British children’s total daily fluoride intake is generally within recommended limits for minimising the risk of dental fluorosis.

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Making up infant formula feeds with fluoridated water

Making up infant formula feeds with fluoridated water

Recommendation from expert panel to continue using fluoridated water to make up infant formula feed products

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Study of tooth decay and fluorosis in Newcastle and Manchester

Study of tooth decay and fluorosis in Newcastle and Manchester

A study of 11 to 13 year olds, published in 2012, found a higher prevalence of dental fluorosis among those living in fluoridated Newcastle upon Tyne (7.1%) than those living in non-fluoridated Manchester (1.2%). Newcastle children had significantly lower levels of tooth decay. Neither of these findings was a surprise, as the scientific evidence accumulated over many years has consistenly shown that there is less tooth decay and more fluorosis in fluoridated communities.

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Survey of children’s fluorosis levels in the  Irish Republic and Northern Ireland (2002)

Survey of children’s fluorosis levels in the Irish Republic and Northern Ireland (2002)

A survey of children across the whole of Ireland, published in 2002, found higher levels of dental fluorosis in fluoridated areas of the Irish Republic than in non-fluoridated areas of the Republic and in wholly non-fluoridated Northern Ireland.

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Manchester-Newcastle study finds low levels  of dental fluorosis of aesthetic concern (2012)

Manchester-Newcastle study finds low levels of dental fluorosis of aesthetic concern (2012)

A study of children aged 11 to 13 year old children in non-fluoridated Manchester and fluoridated Newcastle found low levels of dental fluorosis of aesthetic concern in both cities.  

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Average fluoride intake of 1 to 7 year olds within recommended limits for minimising fluorosis risk

Average fluoride intake of 1 to 7 year olds within recommended limits for minimising fluorosis risk

Figures cited in a paper by Maguire and Zohoori (British Dental Journal, June 2013) show that British children’s total daily fluoride intake is generally within recommended limits for minimising the risk of dental fluorosis.

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Revised prevalence estimates based on European studies

Using data from previous studies conducted in Europe, in 2002 the Medical Research suggested that the prevalence of fluorosis of aesthetic concern was likely was likely to be around 3% to 4% in artificially fluoridated areas and around 1% in non-fluoridated areas. The MRC figures exclude the outcomes of studies conducted in naturally fluoridated countries of Africa and Asia with much hotter climates, which had been included in the York review published two years earlier.

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