One in a Million: reports published since last revision in 2012/3 up to and including 2022.

a) Reviews
Jack B, Ayson M, Lewis S, Irving A, Agresta B, Ko H and Stoklosa A (2016) Health effects of water fluoridation: evidence evaluation report. Report from NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, University of Sydney to National Health and MedicalResearch Council, Canberra, Australia.

National Health and Medical Research Council (2017a) Information paper – Water fluoridation: dental and other human health effects. Report prepared by the Clinical Trials Centre at University of Sydney, NHMRC, Canberra.

National Health and Medical Research Council (2017b) NHMRC Public statement: water fluoridation and human health in Australia. NHMRC,Canberra.

Iheozor-Ejiofor Z, Worthington HV, Walsh T, O’Malley L, Clarkson JE, Macey R, Alam R, Tugwell, Welch V and Glenny AM. (2015) Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries. Cochrane Systematic Reviews published 18 June 2015.

Rugg-Gunn AJ, Spencer AJ, Whelton HP, Jones C, Beal JF, Castle P, Cooney PV, Johnson J, Kelly MP, Lennon MA, McGinley J, O’Mullane D, Sgan-Cohen HD, Sharma PP, Thomson WM, Woodward M and Zusman SP. (2016) Critique of the review of “Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries” by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2015. British Dental Journal 220; 335-340.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015) Comments regarding the Cochrane review of “Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries”. CDC Department of Health and Human Services 2 July 2015, Atlanta, Ga.

McClaren L and Singhal S (2016). Does cessation of community water fluoridation lead to an increase in tooth decay? A systematic review of published studies. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 70; 934-940.

b) New schemes

Blinkhorn AS, Byun R, Mehta P and Kay M. (2015). A 4-year assessment of a new water-fluoridation scheme in New South Wales. International Dental Journal, 65; 156-163

L. McLaren et al., Fluoridation cessation and children’s dental caries: A 7-year follow-up evaluation of Grade 2 schoolchildren in Calgary and Edmonton, Canada, Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology; Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2021;00:1–13 THIS IS A SCHEME CESSATION REVIEW

c) Monitoring studies
Public Health England (2014). Water fluoridation: Health monitoring report for England 2014. PHE, London. Public Health England (2018). Water fluoridation: Health monitoring report for England 2018. PHE, London.

Slade GD, Grider WB, Mass WR and Sanders AE. (2018). Water fluoridation inUS children and adolescents. Journal of Dental Research 97; 1122-1128.

Spencer AJ, Do LG and Ha DH. (2018) Contemporary evidence on the effectiveness of water fluoridation in the prevention of childhood caries. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 46; 407-41

Spencer, A.J., Liu, P., Armfield, J.M. and Do, L.G. (2017), Preventive benefit of access to fluoridated water for young adults. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 77: 263-271. https://doi.org/10.1111/jphd.12207

Griffin SO, Regnier E, Griffin PM, Huntley V. Effectiveness of Fluoride in Preventing Caries in Adults. Journal of Dental Research. 2007;86(5):410-415. doi:10.1177/154405910708600504

Slade GD, Sanders AE, Do L, Roberts-Thomson K, Spencer AJ. Effects of Fluoridated Drinking Water on Dental Caries in Australian Adults. Journal of Dental Research. 2013;92(4):376-382. doi:10.1177/0022034513481190

Firmino RT, Bueno AX, Martins CC, Ferreira FM, Granville-Garcia AF and Paiva SM. (2018) Dental caries and dental fluorosis according to water fluoridation among 12-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren: a nation-wide study comparingdifferent municipalities. Journal of Public Health (Berlin) 26 ;501-507.

Cessation study: McLaren, L, Patterson, SK, Faris, P, et al. Fluoridation cessation and children’s dental caries: A 7-year follow-up evaluation of Grade 2 schoolchildren in Calgary and Edmonton, Canada. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2021; 00: 113. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12685

David J Roberts, Vicky Massey, John Morris, Neville Q Verlander, Ayoub Saei, Nick Young, Semina Makhani, David Wilcox, Gill Davies, Sandra White, Giovanni Leonardi, Tony Fletcher, John Newton, The effect of community water fluoridation on dental caries in children and young people in England: an ecological study, Journal of Public Health, 2022;, fdac066, https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdac066

d) Inequalities
Do LG, Ha DH, Roberts-Thomson KF, Jamieson L, Peres MA and Spencer AJ. (2018). Race- and income-related inequalities in oral health in Australian children by fluoridation status. JDR Clinical & Translation Research. 3; 170-179.

Public Health England (2018).  Water fluoridation: Health monitoring report for England 2018.  PHE, London.

Weston-Price S, Copley V, Smith H and Davies GM. (2018) A multi-variable analysis of four factors affecting caries level among five-year-old children: deprivation, ethnicity, exposure to fluoridated water and geographic region. Community Dental Health. 35; 217-222.

Cho HJ, Lee HS, Paik DI and Bae KH. (2014) Association of dental caries with socioeconomic status in relation to different water fluoridation levels. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 42; 536-542

Matsuo G, Aida J, Osaka K, Rozier RG. Effects of Community Water Fluoridation on Dental Caries Disparities in Adolescents. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Mar 19;17(6):2020. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17062020. PMID: 32204333; PMCID: PMC7175225.

d) Hospital admissions

Hobbs M, Wade A, Jones P, Marek L, Tomintz M, Sharma K, McCarthy J, Mattingley B, Campbell M and Kingham S. (2020). Area-level deprivation, childhood dental ambulatory sensitive hospitalizations and community water fluoridation: evidence from New Zealand, International Journal of Epidemiology published 29 April 2020

Kivitsky A, Tasher D, Stein M, Gavron E and Somekh E. (2015) Hospitalization for dental infections; optimally versus non-optimally fluoridated areas in Israel. Journal of the American Dental Association 146; 179-183.

Public Health England (2018).  Water fluoridation: Health monitoring report for England 2018.  PHE, London.

Public Health England (2017) Health matters: child dental health. Gov.UK 14 June 2017.

The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) report 2021 is intended as a follow-up to the 2000 U.S. Surgeon General’s landmark report on oral health.  The NIH report is accessible at https://www.nidcr.nih.gov/oralhealthinamerica

The environment

Brett Duane, Alexandra Lyne, Ray Parle, Paul Ashley. The environmental impact of community caries prevention – part 3: water fluoridation. British Dental Journal, 2022; 233 (4): 303