If you are new to fluoride in water, look here for an introduction

One in a Million: reports published since last revision in 2012/3 up to and including 2020.

Dental benefits 

  1. Reviews

Jack B, Ayson M, Lewis S, Irving A, Agresta B, Ko H and Stoklosa A (2016) Health effects of water fluoridation: evidence evaluation report. Report from NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, University of Sydney to National Health and Medical Research Council, Canberra, Australia. 

National Health and Medical Research Council (2017a) Information paper – Water fluoridation: dental and other human health effects. Report prepared by the Clinical Trials Centre at University of Sydney, NHMRC, Canberra.

National Health and Medical Research Council (2017b) NHMRC Public statement: water fluoridation and human health in Australia. NHMRC, Canberra.

Iheozor-Ejiofor Z, Worthington HV, Walsh T, O’Malley L, Clarkson JE, Macey R, Alam R, Tugwell, Welch V and Glenny AM. (2015) Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries. Cochrane Systematic Reviews published 18 June 2015.

Rugg-Gunn AJ, Spencer AJ, Whelton HP, Jones C, Beal JF, Castle P, Cooney PV, Johnson J, Kelly MP, Lennon MA, McGinley J, O’Mullane D, Sgan-Cohen HD, Sharma PP, Thomson WM, Woodward M and Zusman SP. (2016)  Critique of the review of “Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries” by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2015. British Dental Journal 220; 335-340. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015) Comments regarding the Cochrane review of “Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries”. CDC Department of Health and Human Services 2 July 2015, Atlanta, Ga.

McClaren L and Singhal S (2016). Does cessation of community water fluoridation lead to an increase in tooth decay?  A systematic review of published studies. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 70; 934-940.


  1. New schemes

 Blinkhorn AS, Byun R, Mehta P and Kay M. (2015). A 4-year assessment of a new water-fluoridation scheme in New South Wales. International Dental Journal, 65; 156-163

  1. Monitoring studies

Public Health England (2014).  Water fluoridation: Health monitoring report for England 2014. PHE, London.

Public Health England (2018).  Water fluoridation: Health monitoring report for England 2018.  PHE, London.

Slade GD, Grider WB, Mass WR and Sanders AE. (2018).  Water fluoridation in US children and adolescents. Journal of Dental Research 97; 1122-1128.

Spencer AJ, Do LG and Ha DH. (2018) Contemporary evidence on the effectiveness of water fluoridation in the prevention of childhood caries. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 46; 407-415

Firmino RT, Bueno AX, Martins CC, Ferreira FM, Granville-Garcia AF and Paiva SM. (2018) Dental caries and dental fluorosis according to water fluoridation among 12-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren: a nation-wide study comparing different municipalities. Journal of Public Health (Berlin) 26 ;501-507.


  1. d) Inequalities

Do LG, Ha DH, Roberts-Thomson KF, Jamieson L, Peres MA and Spencer AJ. (2018). Race- and income-related inequalities in oral health in Australian children by fluoridation status. JDR Clinical & Translation Research. 3; 170-179.

Public Health England (2018) op cit.  

Weston-Price S, Copley V, Smith H and Davies GM. (2018) A multi-variable analysis of four factors affecting caries level among five-year-old children: deprivation, ethnicity, exposure to fluoridated water and geographic region. Community Dental Health. 35; 217-222.

Cho HJ, Lee HS, Paik DI and Bae KH. (2014) Association of dental caries with socioeconomic status in relation to different water fluoridation levels. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 42; 536-542

  1. Hospital admissions

Hobbs M, Wade A, Jones P, Marek L, Tomintz M, Sharma K, McCarthy J, Mattingley B, Campbell M and Kingham S. (2020). Area-level deprivation, childhood dental ambulatory sensitive hospitalizations and community water fluoridation: evidence from New Zealand, International Journal of Epidemiology published 29 April 2020

Kivitsky A, Tasher D, Stein M, Gavron E and Somekh E. (2015) Hospitalization for dental infections; optimally versus non-optimally fluoridated areas in Israel. Journal of the American Dental Association 146; 179-183.

Public Health England (2018) op cit.

Public Health England (2017) Health matters: child dental health. Gov.UK 14 June 2017.